Q.1. Explain the effectiveness of the Panchayat system during the Mughal era and how it contributed to governance and administration during that time.
Ans: – Local Governance: Panchayats were self-governing bodies at the village level and played a pivotal role in local governance during the Mughal era. They were responsible for maintaining law and order, resolving disputes, and overseeing various aspects of village
– Revenue Collection: Panchayats were entrusted with the collection of land revenue and other taxes on behalf of the Mughal government. They assessed and levied taxes on agricultural land,
supervised revenue collection, and ensured the timely payment of dues.
– Conflict Resolution and Mediation: Panchayats acted as mediators and arbitrators in resolving disputes and conflicts within the village. Their role was to promote harmony, reconcile differences, and ensure peaceful coexistence among community members.
– Participatory Democracy: Panchayats embodied the principles of participatory democracy by involving villagers in decision-making processes. They provided a platform for individuals from different social backgrounds to contribute to the governance of their village.
Q.2. Outline four policies of the Mughal empire that contributed to the growth of agriculture.
Ans: – Marketplaces and Trade: The Mughals established well-organized marketplaces known as “mandis” to facilitate the exchange of agricultural goods. These marketplaces played a crucial role in connecting farmers with merchants and consumers, stimulating economic activity.
– Zamindari System: The Mughals introduced the Zamindari system, where zamindars (landlords) were granted revenue rights over specific areas of land. This system aimed to ensure stable revenue collection and provide incentives for zamindars to invest in agricultural development.
– Introduction of New Crops: The Mughals introduced several new crops to India, including fruits, vegetables, and cash crops like tobacco and maize. These additions diversified agricultural production and provided economic opportunities for farmers.
– Irrigation Infrastructure: The Mughals invested in the construction of extensive irrigation systems, including canals, wells, and tanks. These infrastructure projects facilitated improved water management, increased agricultural yield, and reduced the impact of droughts.